Textbooks: The Ancient World

Medieval Times to Today

1. Timelines/Dates
BCE\CE (Before Common Era and Common Era
Understanding history is beyond dates
Understanding history is a perspective

2. Development of Civilizations
The prehistory of today's society stretches back thousands of years. Progressing from the hunter-gatherers to prehistoric farmers, humans developed new means of producing goods and new methods of survival. Fire and agriculture were keys for prehistoric people's attempt to establish permanent residences, and eventually instrumental in building the first civilizations and cities.

3. Review of Mesopotamia/Egypt
The Fertile Crescent was the birthplace of many early civilizations. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provided ideal conditions for human settlement, with the first civilizations rising in Mesopotamia, or the land between the rivers. "Egypt is the gift of the Nile," providing the Egyptians with many necessities of life and their civilization was built along its fertile shores.

4. Ancient Greece
Greece is a peninsula extending south into the Mediterranean Sea. This mountainous land, surrounded by the sea and scattered islands, was the home of one of the most influential ancient societies. Ancient Greek philosophy and culture still affect our lives in many ways.

5. Ancient Rome
At its height, the Roman Empire was huge. Stretching from Spain to the Middle East and from Britain to Northern Africa, it was one of the largest empires ever established. The first settlers on Rome's seven hills chose the site for its natural attractions. But as centuries passed, the people of Rome discovered that their location gave them other advantages. Rome was at the center of the long, narrow peninsula we now call Italy. Italy was at the center of the Mediterranean Sea. And the Mediterranean Sea was at the center of the known Western world.

6. Byzantium
The Byzantine Empire covered a vast area of Europe. The empire had a unique geography and culture that allowed it to flourish for many years. Experiencing religious and political disputes while contributing to the arts and sciences, allowing their heritage to live on today, mostly in the modern country of Turkey.

7. Europe in the Middle Ages
The Middle Ages can be thought of as a long period of transition between ancient and modern times. During this time, Europe was made up of many separate kingdoms and states. Over time, a new system of government developed and the power of the Church increased. In some regions, towns and large cities developed. Trading routes grew safer and goods and wealth spread throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia.

8. Renaissance \ Reformation \ Age of Exploration
The late 1400s began an age of great change in Europe. One aspect of this change was a new sense of curiosity about the arts, science, religion, and other lands. This period witnessed a revolt against the Church, a surge of new ideas, and the increased strength of many of Europe's monarchs. European nations also made conquests in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.